FAQs on Ketamine Infusions in Colorado
Ketamine is a solution proven safe and effective for the management of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in outpatient and inpatient settings. This intervention is often used in the emergency department when the doctor wishes to avoid narcotics.
What is ketamine?
Sold under the brand name Ketalar, ketamine is a medication used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. This drug induces a trance-like state, offering pain relief, memory loss, and sedation. Ketamine effects begin within 5 minutes of injection, and it can last for up to 30 minutes. Ketamine is used for postoperative pain management, for severe pain related to CRPS, and for pain relief during surgery. As an analgesic, ketamine is most effective when combined with a low-dose opioid.
Why is ketamine better than narcotics?
Ketamine has a selective effect on CRPS pain without causing prolonged sedation or respiratory depression. Ketamine infusions are used because they do not lead to addiction, physical dependency, or constipation. In a recent study, low dose intravenous (IV) ketamine was used with an epidural for pain relief in studied patients. Researchers found the ketamine infusion eliminated chronic pain and prevented CRPS following surgery. In addition, the treatment helped prevent depression.
Why is ketamine making a comeback?
For decades, doctors used ketamine for general anesthesia. Because of hallucinations, the use of ketamine waned. Now, pain management specialists are using low-dose ketamine, which inhibits the NMDA receptors responsible for central sensitization. It works synergistically with many analgesics, and hallucinations are rare with low doses.
How does ketamine work?
Ketamine acts as an antagonist of the NMDA receptor. Known actions of the drug are weak agonist of the μ-opioid and κ-opioid receptors, activation of AMPA receptors, inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, and inhibitor of reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. To cause analgesia, ketamine interacts with a host of other targets, blocking calcium channels and sodium channels, altering cholinergic neurotransmission, and affecting antinociceptive pathways.
What is the usual ketamine treatment protocol?
A ketamine infusion protocol consists of deep conscious sedation with ketamine. The patient is dosed with 0.2mg of glycopyrolate IV and then the drip is administered. The starting ketamine doses is 60 mg/hour. This treatment is given in a controlled medical setting. Adequate anesthesia for ketamine infusion is achieved when the patient is in a dissociation state.
Do ketamine infusions work?
In a 2012 retrospective analysis involving 49 patients with severe refractory pain, researchers evaluated the 360 outpatient ketamine infusions that occurred over a 5-year timeframe. In the study, immediate reduction of pain was noted in 59% of patients. In addition, a study of 13 patients with severe neuropathic pain, researchers found that ketamine infusions had an 85% success rate, and around half of the patients had pain relief that lasted for one month.
What are the safety precautions involved with ketamine?
Ketamine will cause drowsiness for up to 24 hours after the infusion. You should not drive afterwards, and must avoid rigorous activities. Ketamine can lead to behavior changes, alteration in mental clarity and mood changes. Children, teens, pregnant women, and the elderly should not use ketamine.
Patil S & Anitescu M (2012). Efficacy of outpatient ketamine infusions in refractory chronic pain syndromes: a 5-year retrospective analysis. Pain Med, 13(2):263-269. PMID 21939497
Webster LR & Walker MJ (2006). Safety and efficacy of prolonged outpatient ketamine infusions for neuropathic pain. Am J Ther, 13(4):300-305. PMID 16858163